In June 2004 the Strategic Development Plan of the Port of Leixões was approved, which includes a Plan of Actions that has the overriding goal of increasing the port's competitiveness.
This competitiveness shall be achieved through evolution and development of the port, based on two key factors: internal competitiveness, with special emphasis on the pricing policy of the port, the efficiency of port operations and the swiftness and flexibility of the administrative and bureaucratic procedures, and its positioning in the logistical chain, particularly in terms of added value services.
The development strategy of the Port of Leixões was drawn up in accordance with the port's mission, which consists of a declaration of the port's reason for existing and shapes its image, character and values.
The mission of the port is as follows: "To bring the Port of Leixões to a benchmark position for the logistical supply chains of the Iberian Peninsula Atlantic coastal area".
The vision is to create a competitive and modern reference point on the Atlantic Front, in which new factors of competitiveness come to the fore: connectivity between the different port agents, the added value services, and the information and communication system.
The principal development aims for Port of Leixões define the main strategic guidelines which shall guide the activity of the different agents of the Port Community over the timescale of this Strategic Development Plan.
Therefore, the following four essential development goals shall be pursued:
This goal aims to bring about continuous enhancement of the image of the Port of Leixões in the different target markets it works with or intends to break into. To achieve this goal the added value of the «Port of Leixões » brand shall be clearly defined, as well as the establishment in operational terms of effective and efficient marketing mechanisms.
This goal aims to make the Port of Leixões a strategic partner in the transport and logistical chains, better adapting the services on offer to the current and future needs of the market. As such, this goal is based on the continuous improvement of the efficiency of the port operation and the development of added value logistical services, both provided by the Port itself and with the entities of origin/destination of commodities located in its hinterland.
This goal aims to improve the facilities and know-how at the port to back up the core business of the Port of Leixões, so as to mitigate current limitations and create a strong logistical infrastructure base. To achieve this goal it is especially important to improve the port facilities themselves and to enhance the procedures and information flows linked to the use of the Port.
This goal aims to progressively solve the problems currently affecting the Port of Leixões with regard to the surrounding urban areas and the way it is physically connected to its hinterland. To achieve this goal it is crucially important to complete the VILPL (Internal Connection Road to the Port of Leixões) and the main roads of the regional road network, to improve the maritime-railway interface and the commodity transport by rail, and to overcome hindrances between the port and its immediate urban environment.
The implementation of the Strategic Development Plan of the Port of Leixões is grounded on specific actions that are segmented into sector plans in the fields of port marketing, logistical and territorial layout and the information system.
This translates into 21 actions that intend to guide the management of the port over the next 10 years, from 2004 to 2015, and which have the overriding aim of maximising its performance through the implementation of the strategy in operational terms, namely:
- enable the entrance of vessels with a bigger draught;
- facilitate manoeuvring in the port basin, improving the capacity of the posts for oil tankers and the new multi-purpose terminal;
- enlarge circulation capacity in the lead-up to the port, simultaneously bringing advantages for port through traffic.
- new rotation basic measuring 430 m and with depths of – 12 m (Z.H.L.);
- lowering of the canal giving access to the interior docks to – 12 m (Z.H.L.);
- breaking of rock and new approaches to posts "B" and "C" of the Oil Terminal;
- construction of new drawbridge (with span of 77.5 m) and creation of better land connections between the two industrial centres of the city – Matosinhos and Leça.
Estimated Cost: 19 million euros
The above actions are ongoing. The respective studies and execution projects have been completed or are nearing completion. A tender was recently launched for the construction of the New Drawbridge, which is scheduled to be finished in 2006.
- enlarge the port area in one of the last available zones for the purpose;
- create and provide conditions for the development of the roll-on/roll-off market segment;
- improve and enlarge the facilities for development of the passenger transport market segment.
- restoration of the south mole quay and construction of a new multi-purpose terminal, which includes a roll-on/roll-off ramp;
- deepening of depths to –8.5 m Z.H.L. next to the new multi-purpose terminal;
- allocation of port reserve near the area of the former coal cellars;
- construction of a passenger terminal including other complementary spaces;
- further land-levelling at the multi-purpose terminal.
Estimated Cost: over 18 million euros
As described, this action encompasses the construction of the Multi-purpose Terminal at the South Mole, which intends to recover one of the few areas still available inside the port for port operation. A roll on/roll off ramp shall be built and surrounding land levelled to better serve this market segment which requires a large quantity of flat land.
The execution project for the construction of the terminal is scheduled to be completed by July 2005, given that the Environmental Impact Assessment has already been approved. Building should begin in the last quarter of 2005, and it is scheduled to be finished by the end of 2007.
- improve the operating conditions of the Oil Terminal;
- overcome constraints in terms of sea agitation, bottlenecks, maintenance of depths and permeability of the foundation prisms of the high breakwater and the instability of the tetrapod layer.
- undertaking of a study of the operating conditions of the Oil Terminal (ongoing);
- carrying out of improvements at the Oil Terminal.
Estimated Cost: over 15 million euros.
Taking into account the relative importance of the Oil Terminal and the uncertainty surrounding whether the Petrogal Refinery activity will continue in the medium/long term, although it is expected that it will remain an important storage centre for refined products, we are studying the opportunities to significantly improve the operability of this terminal. It currently has several constraints, namely with regard to sea agitation, bottlenecks, maintenance of the depths, permeability of the foundation prism of the high breakwater and instability of the tetrapod layer, which often requires bolstering.
The study of the Operating Conditions of the Leixões Oil Terminal is being carried out by the Hydraulic and Hydric Resources Institute, of the Faculty of Engineering, Oporto University, and has applied for support from the Operational Programme for Access and Transport.
Based on the conclusions presented in the final report of this study, the two or three solutions found will be studied and tested on a 3D physical model. The study on the 3D model shall be undertaken by the National Civil Engineering Laboratory and shall define the final solution to be adopted to reinforce safety and improve the operability of Leixões Oil Terminal.
The large-scale project to improve the operating conditions at the Oil Terminal should only get underway in 2006 and be completed at the end of 2007, while the execution project and work to Restore the Concrete at the Oil Terminal will take place between 2005 and 2006.
- adapt the port area to the new land entrance "door";
- strict and computerised control of entrance to and departures from the port.
- opening of the VILPL road (Internal Connection Road to the Port of Leixões) and creation of the single gateway, automatic control of entrance and departure at gateway of the Port of Leixões, with connection to the Business Management System and the geographical information system, producing the documentation necessary for loading/unloading and registering of the information needed for departure/entrance of commodities at the port;
- creation of road haulage park and commodity control area (Customs, Scanners, revision and inspection) controlling the commodities using technology such as EPC (Electronic Product Code), electronic identification technology through radio frequency, a scanner, checking and registering contents of containers that enter and depart the Port of Leixões, duly backed up by information systems that guarantee the issue of legal documents and integration of the information with the Business Management System.
Estimated Cost: over 2.5 million euros.
Building work finished on the VILPL (Internal Connection Road to the Port of Leixões) at the start of 2004. We now await the construction of the VRI (Regional Interior Road) by EP – Estradas de Portugal to enable the VILPL, which gives exclusive access to the Port of Leixões, to open and take road haulage traffic off the Matosinhos urban road network.
The Single Gateway Project is part of this initiative to reorganise the layout of the port accesses, aimed at implementing a single access (VILPL), and therefore tighter control, to the Port of Leixões for heavy vehicles and their respective loads.
The new gateway will ensure automatic control of entrances and departures, duly backed up by information systems that guarantee the issue of legal documents and integration of information with the Port Business Management system application, creating a commodity control area endowed with a container scanner.
The Single Gateway Project of the Port of Leixões was contracted in March 2004. Phase I of the project is currently being developed, which involves the prior study in which the design and specification of the functional model will be prepared and the requirements for functioning of the system defined. After approval of Phase I, Phase II shall begin – Purchase of the Specialist Systems. In Phase III – Execution Project, software shall be developed and execution projects and General Contract Conditions drawn up for execution of the infrastructures. Phase IV of the project involves Technical Assistance for the building of infrastructures and implementation of systems.
- take advantage of underused areas to increase port operations;
- create conditions to expand the South Container Terminal, in order to increase the longevity of the sector that is undergoing fastest growth;
- enlarge mooring post at one of the «healthiest» quays of the port;
- enable the development of added value activities.
- conversion of the lorry waiting park;
- disassembly and preparation of the current CP terminal to make it a container terminal;
- redesign and reconstruction of the VCP layout and the railway line in this sector;
- re-working of the dock 3 quay project and its construction;
- creation of a filtering railway station.
Estimated Cost: approximately 9 million euros.
- improve operational and logistical capacity of the Port of Leixões;
- encourage multimodal transport (maritime-rail, maritime-road, rail-road);
- improve the urban layout and transport flows inherent to the logistical and transport activities;
- strengthen the logistical and transport dynamics in the region of Oporto, bringing new actors into these activities.
- This action presupposes a multiple-pole logistical platform at the port and a phased implementation through the various articulated projects, and is structured around the following components:
- study of viability and most suitable use of the different areas of the logistical platform;
- creation of a company to construct and manage the storage and logistical activity areas, owned by the shareholders the Port Authority of Douro and Leixões , TCL, TCGL and others (linked to the promotion and management of business zones);
- implementation of the Gatões/Guifões pole of the Logistical Platform (L.P.) (e.g. logistical activity zone – 38.6 ha);
- creation of wheeled-rail vehicle access points to other poles of the L.P. (Gonçalves, Portela, Freixieiro – Tertir);
- implementation of the Gonçalves Pole (e.g. 2nd line storage – 23.5 ha);
- implementation of the Portela Pole (e.g. Railway Commodities Centre – 41 ha);
- implementation of the Freixieiro – Tertir Pole (e.g. Logistical Activities Coordination Centre – 21 ha).
Estimated Cost: approximately 145 million euros.
The Port Authority of Douro and Leixões is currently carrying out the prior study of the Landscaping of the Road connection between the VILPL (Internal Connection Road to the Port of Leixões) and the Multimodal Platform (Gatões/Guifões pole) of the North Region. A survey of the zones potentially allocated to the Logistical Platform has also been carried out.
The building of the Logistical Platform is expected to get underway in 2007.
- optimise the areas of the various terminals, avoiding low levels of utilisation;
- contribute to the good image of the port, guaranteeing good use and maintenance of the areas and buildings;
- reduce conflicts with the surrounding environment.
- permanent monitoring through negotiation with the various concessionaires;
- remodelling and layout of the premises of DOPS – Port Operations and Safety Management (this project has been ongoing since 2004, and should be completed by the end of the 1st six months of 2005);
- remodelling of the Library area in the central building (this project has been completed);
- premises for SEF – Foreigners and Border Control, and the Passenger Control Post (the execution project began in 2004, and building should begin in the last quarter of 2005);
- PIF – Border Inspection Post (this post will be created in warehouse 15);
- Refurbishment of the surface of the south container terminal;
- Allocation of residual spaces under the IC1 for material park, maintenance workshops, parking of small vessels and eco-centre (the execution project of the layout of the area surrounding the
- Bypass Bridge (VVR) is ongoing and building should be complete by the end of 2005).
Estimated Cost: approximately 2 million euros.
- improve the image of the port in relation to the city, to keep in step with the new dynamic urban image;
- further diversify the functions of the port;
- organise events to bring the community and port closer together, transforming the port gradually into not only a functional facility but also a cultural reference point.
Grouping several ongoing projects, this action is made up the following:
- refurbishment and recuperation of the buildings of the old nucleus of the Port Authority of Douro and Leixões workshops, creating a canteen, sports halls and a new bar;
- remodelling of the Passenger Terminal, encompassing the installation of a restaurant open to the general public and which is accessed independently from the port zone;
- refurbishment of the Pilots' building;
- recuperation and remodelling of the maritime sanitation core;
- granting of areas contracted to the new passenger terminal, accessed through the high level of the south mole (as defined in operation 2.4), given the possibility that the Royal Park pipelines are to be removed;
- creation of a high passageway, at the high level of the south mole, reached from exterior accesses;
- organisation of programmes of interest for the public in the sector downstream from the south mole.
Estimated Cost: approximately 4 million euros.
The remodelling of the Passenger Terminal was adjudicated at the end of 2004, and should be completed by the end of 2005.
With regard to the refurbishment of the pilots' building, the project is currently being drawn up, and building should get underway in the final quarter of 2005.
- improve the image of the port and the layout of the adjacent urban area;
- clarify responsibility for jurisdiction over perimeter areas following the opening of the VILPL Internal Connection Road to the Port of Leixões;
- diminish conflicts with residential area by forbidding use/construction in the zone;
- optimise ownership of surrounding land so as to better define the urban area;
- develop partnerships with other urban agents, enlarging the business weight and influence of the Port of Leixões.
- design of green «mooring» zones of the new drawbridge;
- decongesting of avenues next to the port following the opening of the single gateway, creating conditions for them to be readapted and refurbished;
- enhancement of urban fronts in the areas next to the metro line;
- cooperation in the implementation of the passenger transport interface NW of Cepsa;
- enhancement of urban fronts in land east of Cepsa, owned by the Port Authority of Douro and Leixões .
- improve the quality of the environment surrounding the port;
- harmonise the expansion of the port (logistical platform) with simultaneous environmental concern;
- contribute to the wellbeing of the urban population of Leça, Matosinhos, Santa Cruz do Bispo and Guifões.
- commit to and design a significant part of the land owned by the Port Authority of Douro and Leixões which is reserved and safeguarded for an urban park (includes some land that is not reserved to allow connection from the Horse-riding Centre to the park and also study of non-level crossing of the VILPL). Total 19.6 ha;
- design and construction of crossing(s) of the IC1, on the Leça da Palmeira side;
- annexing of other expansion areas to the northeast and southeast to allow connection of the Matosinhos side to the park. (+21.6 ha). Total 41.2 ha;
- design and construction of crossing(s) of the IC1, on the Matosinhos side;
- enlargement of the park zone to other neighbouring wooded areas, which are reserved/safeguarded, landscaping the final stretch of the River Leça (+39.8 ha). Total 81.0 ha.
Estimated Cost: over 9 million euros.
- integrate the commercial promotion initiatives of the Port in order to consolidate the "the Port of Leixões" brand in the market.
- make the Port Community of Leixões responsible for the commercial promotion of the port in its various fields of activity;
- reformulate the goals and statutes of the Port Community in order to identify the commercial objectives of the port, establish a monthly meeting of its management and create permanent task
- groups dedicated to specific and relevant matters for the commercial promotion of the port;
- get the Port Community in contact with entities directly interested in the port services, such as the GPL –Management Association of the Port of Leixões, the Entrepreneurial Association of Portugal and APLOG – Portuguese Logistics Association;
- use Port Community as an ideal "lobby" to defend the port's interests in general (e.g. financing of Portuguese ports, VAT regime, improvement of road and rail access to Leixões and connection to the main European routes, creation of storage areas and the Logistical Platform to back up port activities, etc.);
- the Port Concessionaires (TCL, TCGL and Petrogal) and the Port Authority must exercise effective leadership of the Port Community.
- attract more business (solidify the natural hinterland of the Port of Leixões);
- attract new business (land transport and widen hinterland) and cargo from other ports;
- improve image – inform and clarify.
- Transit agents (Clients) – despite being a somewhat small-scale activity, and also extremely concentrated, the market share of the large agents is considerable. The cargo owners operate using these agents, and hence more cargo can be channelled to where it most interests them. Despite being well-informed professionals, a lot still needs to be done regarding the publicising of the Port services.
- Communication tools: Public Relations + Publicity + Sales promotion + Internet
- Direct clients (Ship owners) – the deepening of depths provides an opportunity to attract ship owners and establish regular stopovers of routes that were previously impossible. As such, the new capacity must be publicised to the ship owners and their headquarters. Communication tools: Public Relations + Sales promotion + Sales force
- Direct clients (Local) – with the new scenario (which implies more and better arguments) clients are starting to hear what they want to hear. They should be informed about the new conditions at the port and the better prices. With increased competitiveness (the idea of a port that functions well) the port will no longer be thought of as more expensive than the others – indeed it is more efficient and offers a better quality service. Communication Tools: Public Relations + Publicity + Sales promotion + Internet
- Non-maritime Transport – The success of the TMCD (Short Distance Maritime Transport) also depends on the enterprise of the land transporters. For the cargo to be sent or delivered quickly and safely these professionals must be able to carry out their job with as little bureaucracy and as swiftly as possible. They should therefore be viewed as allies. Communication Tools: Public Relations + Publicity.
Estimated Cost: approximately 16 500 euros
- improve articulation between the different public agents that interact in the ship and cargo cycle at the port;
- create conditions to offer global integrated and complementary services for the port users, exploiting the advantages of integrated management of processes;
- make procedures more flexible and aid traffic so as to reduce the rotation time of the ships and cargo at the port;
- improve image – inform and clarify.
- project to improve articulation among entities responsible for the processes linked to port operations, safety and security and traffic management (ships, cargo and people);
- simplification and greater flexibility in the bureaucratic procedures with regard to the administrative and customs process;
- improve facilities and procedures at the port's Border Inspection Post;
- adjustment of business hours of the various public agents;
- rationality and transparency of tariffs charged by the various public agents.
Estimated Cost: 30 000 euros
- improve image and engender positive attitudes;
- develop a culture of cooperation with associations and their members;
- attract more business (solidify presence in the natural hinterland of the Port of Leixões).
- This action consists of the creation of a communication channel with indirect clients (those which use the transit agents) using business associations as intermediaries for the purpose. This involves organising a joint commission that defines a programme (aims, schedule, actions and costs) and which will regularly inform its members, guaranteeing that the message is received without interference by the interested parties, ensuring feedback with respective complaints and suggestions.
- The Portuguese Investment Agency, in turn, is a gateway for foreign investment, and as such is of considerable strategic importance. The logistical component for companies – transport, port access and conditions – is highly relevant for importation and exportation, influencing not only in the decision to invest, but also where to localise, which is often dictated by the choice of port.
- The strategy of the Port of Leixões is to intervene right from the planning phase of the new unit, ensuring cargo and reducing the influence of the ports of Vigo and Aveiro in its natural hinterland.
- guarantee the quality certification of the Port of Leixões;
- guarantee the environmental certification of the Port of Leixões;
- guarantee the security of the IS/IT and the safety certification in accordance with international standards.
- go ahead with the quality certification of the Port of Leixões, involving all procedures and creating management monitoring mechanisms;
- promote the environmental certification of the Port of Leixões as a product, involving the concessionaires;
- assess the safety of the IS/IT of the Port of Leixões, taking into account compliance with ISO 17799.
Estimated Cost: approximately 800 000 euros.
- ensure the Supply Chain Security of the Commodities that go through the Port of Leixões;
- test the Security of the Ships, Cargo and Personnel in the Port areas;
- guarantee Special Security for Hazardous Goods and High Added Value Goods;
- obtain reliable and timely information concerning the commodities manifestos and the respective location of goods throughout the logistical chain;
- make "Certification" in terms of Security of the Agents (Logistical Operators) of the Transport chain identical to that required by the Transporters Authorised by Customs with regard to justification
- Manifestos of the Community Statute of Commodities, through connection to the New Computerised Transit System - NSTI, and identical to that being developed in the scope of the Container Security Initiative - CSI;
- reduce the control and staying times of the ships and goods at the port.
- encourage cooperation among the partners of the transport chain to develop security and certification systems that make it easier to control the processes at the port in accordance with the safety standards implemented in line with the IMO – International Maritime Organisation;
- creation of a Coordination and Security Centre and respective Facilities and Internal Instrumentation;
- improve External Security Instrumentation;
- purchase of non-intrusive inspection equipment for cargo and cargo units (scanners);
- development of subsystem applications backing up the monitoring and control functions of the Port Activity and Safety; implementation of a helpdesk system for the business processes and respective updating of certification processes.
Estimated Cost: approximately 7 million euros
- minimise pollution of the air, soil, sediments and surface waters of the Port of Leixões;
- environmental recuperation of the Banks of the River Douro and the Atlantic Front in the area under the jurisdiction of the Port of Leixões;
- intensify environmental inspection of activities undertaken by third parties with regard to port operation and in other areas under the jurisdiction of the Port Authority of Douro and Leixões.
- implementation of plans to monitor the air, noise, sediments and surface waters;
- drawing up of studies to minimise environmental impacts and guides detailing good environmental practices in the handling of solid bulk;
- improvement in the solid waste selective collection system;
- organisation of regular cleaning of the wharf area of the Port of Leixões;
- actions mitigating the environmental impacts in the movement of commodities;
- connection of effluents from some areas of the Port of Leixões to the basic sanitation system;
- levelling of the final stretch of the River Leça.
Estimated Cost: over 2 million euros
- optimise management of the physical space and improve the safety of the Port of Leixões.
- management of the geographical area of the Port of Leixões so as to optimise use of space and minimise risks and consequences of any incident that occurs in the port area (namely in terms of location of infrastructures, storage of commodities, especially commodities considered hazardous, evacuation plans, etc.);
- management of physical architectural components and IS/IT infrastructure, namely the physical layout of cabling (data, voice, electricity, etc.), layers that may include sanitation, electricity, implementation of fittings, safety support equipment, fire extinguishers, etc.;
- Domain Management assistance.
Estimated Cost: 250 000 euros
- Develop a new business model for the Port of Leixões based on e-commerce tools, which connects all the parties involved in the activity and enables costs to be cut, increased efficiency and provision of information on-line for all customers.
Provision of information and services of interest on-line to the users that (i) contribute to increased productivity and reduction of costs of the port activity, (ii) puts the port at the forefront of Portuguese ports regarding the services provided to its clients and (iii) projects the image of the port as a dynamic and modern enterprise, on a par with international ports such as Barcelona or Rotterdam.
The portal should function like a Market Place where the client can contract services (logistics), carry out business transactions, consult information about ships, cargo or other data of interest and interact with other maritime activity players. This project shall be undertaken in phases:
- Creation of a task force made up of members from several institutions of the Port Community, which will oversee the management and execution of the project, as well as the future evolution of the Portal and respective management of contents and functionalities;
- Undertaking of a prior study that identifies the contents and functionalities to be made available and the management model (financing, organisation, institutional partners, infrastructure needed and publicising strategy);
- Phased provision of functionalities, according to a previously defined schedule. This will include not only the developments needed for the design and flows of the Portal itself, but also the internal adjustments needed in the Port Authority of Douro and Leixões, in the concessionaires and in the rest of the parties involved, in order to ensure the efficacy of the new procedures;
- Monitoring of the user satisfaction level and collection of suggestions, with a view to continuous improvement of the service and provision of new functionalities in the Portal.
Estimated Cost: 750 000 euros
- transfer of administrative procedures to the Web, in order to reduce the manual administrative load, circulation of paper in the Port Authority of Douro and Leixões, optimisation of the information flows and centralisation of the working tools;
- use of this facility to disclose internal information and provide training and an interface for applications so as to cut costs and increase flexibility and productivity.
- widen the concept of the portal to the Intranet placing all the Port Authority of Douro and Leixões' internal functional components on the facility, thus making it a working tool for the Port Authority of Douro and Leixões employees. The instigation of the Port of Leixões Intranet must be based on the transfer and integration of the back-office applications on the Intranet, making the internal portal the main working tool of the Port Authority of Douro and Leixões staff (e.g. booking holidays, updating personal data, performance assessment, with direct input into the HR system).
- These processes must be backed up by a workflow with underlying approval and disclosure circuits. It is also suggested that the Intranet be used to disclose internal regulations, requests, the
- Training Plan, registration for training courses and information of general interest for all users.
Estimated Cost: 350 000 euros
- to improve knowledge of the Port's clients, anticipate their requirements and prioritise investment in accordance with the real needs;
- enable the Port Authority of Douro and Leixões to produce management information and activity indicators, make cargo movement forecasts, and provide reliable information about the movement of types of cargo for other members of the Port Community of Leixões.
creation of tools to back up strategic business decisions, with information about clients and commodities transported through the port (who the end clients are, which commodities are transported, what their weight is in terms of the activity, why they chose the Port of Leixões, what are their needs and what services do they value).
This project involves not only integration of the current Databases of the Port Authority of Douro and Leixões and the Concessionaires, but possibly the creation of new functionalities in the existing systems that aim to gather information about the clients, which should be integrated into the Portal project (18) and complement the development of a risk model, drawn up based on variables that dictate the behaviour of the consumers. The aim is to incorporate the system into the logistical chain both upstream and downstream, to provide a reasonable degree of confidence to users of the port concerning the services provided to its clients.
This action should include two clearly separate phases:
- Creation of the integrated information Databases and incorporation of Data Mining tools that enable statistical analysis of the port activity information, in order to develop a related marketing strategy, monitor the activity, support the strategic investment decisions and undertake studies on growth and positioning in relation to competitors.
- Study of the variables that dictate the behaviour of the port users and development of risk models for the port activity, duly integrated into the logistical chain.
Estimated Cost: 350 000 euros